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Glossary of Zen terms

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Aikido: Japanese martial art. Literally: aika: ‘harmony’ with the cosmic system, and do ‘way’.
Amida: Japanese term for the Amithaba Buddha, the Buddha of the incommensurable luminous splendor, incarnation characterized by compassionate spirituality, that denies nirvana until all humans can reach his paradise. His is principally venerated in Japan, where devotional practices in his honor have largely inspired figurative arts and hymnology that is expressed in songs called ‘wasan’.
Amitha: v. Amida.
An: comfort, ease.
Ango: The 90 to 100-day time period for a summer spiritual retreat in the monasteries.
Angya: Pilgrimage by a Zen follower that has finished the first phase of training and visits a an important monastery to find a teacher to continue learning.
Arhat: or Arahat was the original name given to people with great spiritual progress. In Ancient Buddhism, it designated who had eliminated all contamination, that has reach the saint status and ‘has nothing more to learn’.
Avalokitesvara: Sanskrit name for the Boddhisattva of compassion.
Banka: Evening sutra ceremony.
Basho: 1644-1694 The most important writer in Japanese Haiku.
Baso: 709-788 One of the most eminent Zen teachers, renown for using various and distinct methods. He had 139 successors. His words and actions inspired the material for many koans.
Bhikkhu: monk.
Bhikkuni: nun.
Bodai: Japanese term equivalent to the Sanskrit ‘Bodhi’, the Buddha’s illumination.
Bodai shin: Sanskrit for Buddhahood, the awakening spirit, the mind of the Buddha, intrinsic wisdom.
Bodaidaruma: v. Bodhidarma.
Bodhicitta: v. bodai shin.
Bodhai-Daruma: v. Bodhidharma.
Bodhidharma: Sanskrit term, Bodahi-Daruma or Daruma in Japanese, died in 532, was the twenty-eighth Indian Patriarch that went to China and become the first Chinese Patriarch of Ch’an Buddhism, the ‘Meditative Buddhism’ Japanese Zen derives directly from the Ch’an school. According to tradition, he practiced meditation, after reaching seventy years, staring at a wall for nine years in the Shao-lin monastery in northern China. He cut off his eyelids so that he would not fall asleep, this is why he is represented with a terrifying gaze.
Bodhisattva: Sanskrit term, literally ‘to be illuminated’, who practices the Buddha Way and, motivated by compassion, denies ultimate illumination to help others to become illuminated.
Bonsho: Large bronze bell located outside of the dojo, not found in urban temples.
Bosatsu: Bodhisattva.
Bosatsu kai: Precepts of the Bottisattva.
Buddha: Sanskrit term, literally ‘Awakened’. Designates the historic Buddha, Shakyamuni; the illuminated that have reached Buddhahood; the fundamental truth; the true nature of all beings.
Buddhadharma: Sanskrit term, ‘Buppo’ in Japanese, the Buddha nature, specifically refers to the teachings of Shakyamuni, but broadly speaking, to the reality of life as one experiences it from the Satori perspective.
Buddhismo: Term indicates the restorative doctrine by the Buddha.
Bukkyo: Buddhism.
Buppo: v. Buddhadharma.
Bushido: The Warrior’s Way or Samurai.
Bushin in: Seal of the Buddha mind, the sign of correct transmission.
Butsu: Buddha.
Butsuden: one of the buildings or large halls where the statue of the Buddha or Bodhisattva is kept.
Butsudo: The Way of the Buddha. Sometimes it refers to the Buddha’s teachings, and sometimes to the path or practice that leads to illumination or animates it.
Butsugyo: The works of the Buddha.
Ch’an: Chinese term that means ‘meditation’ It is the equivalent to the Sanskrit Dhyana and Japanese Zen.
Cha: tea.
Chabana: Simple and elegant floral decorations of the room holding the tea ceremony.
Chado: Japanese term for the tea path and indicate a Japanese Zen school.
Chanoyu: Japanese tea ceremony, it has become the conversation vehicle for Zen aesthetic theory.
Chaseki: Teahouse.
Chashitsu: Teahouse.
Choka: Ancient form of Japanese poetry, longer than Haikus.
Citta: Sanskrit term, ‘shin’ in Japanese, meaning mind-heart.
Daruma: v. Bodhidharma.
Dharma: Sanskrit term designating the Shakyamuni Buddha’s teachings; Truth; the Buddhist doctrine; universal law. The plural ‘Dharmas’ indicate the phenomena, the constructive elements of existence.
Dharmakaya: Sanskrit term, ‘hosshin’ in Japanese, the first of the three aspects o bodies of the Buddha nature that designate the absolute beyond discrimination, the inexpressible reality and the transcendent reality, the unity with the Buddha with all beings.
Dhyana: Sanskrit term, literally ‘concentration of the conscience, meditative absorption’, that means meditation, ‘Ch’an’ in Chinese, ‘Zen’ in Japanese.
Do: Japanese term that translates the Tao Chinese ideogram ‘Way’ and indicates the Buddha’s path toward illumination. Plural ‘Dos’ are the Japanese arts characterized by Zen spirit like shodo, kendo, judo, chado.
Dōgen Kigen: Founder of the Sōtō school of Zen Buddhism in Japan, originally from Kyoto, he lived from 1200 to 1253. After nine years of studying under the Rinzai school, he visited Chine from 1223 to 1227 where he studied with T’ien-t’ung Ju-ching, Tendo Nyojo in Japanese, belonging to the Sōtō Zen lineage, he became its successor. In 1244 he established today’s Eihei-ji monastery in the Fukui Prefecture in Japan, the principle seat of the Sōtō sect. He wrote the famous collection of writings on the Dharma, the Shōbōgenzō.
Dojo: Place of practicing the Way in every aspect, non just through meditation.
Dokusan: In the Sōtō Zen school, individual visits between the student and the Roshi. They are for verifying and stimulating the student’s comprehension and to consult the Teacher on any problem that may arise throughout the practice. In the Rinzai Zen school, it is called Sanzen.
Doshin: The mind that seeks perfect illumination and attempts to achieve it. The aspiration to deepen and perfect one’s own life.
Duhkha: Sanskrit term, in pali dukka, that designates painful condition, the fundamental concept of Buddhism. It is caused by the desire that characterizes the lives of all beings and that if eradicated removes the conditions of suffering.
Echo: Morning sutra ceremony.
Eisai: 1141-1215 maestro Japanese Buddhist teacher that in 1202 founded the Rinzai Zen sect.
Enso: Japanese term meaning ‘circle’ In Zen iconography it represents the Absolute and is drawn with a single pen stroke at the height of a long meditation.
Fukan Zazengi: Lieterally ‘the universal diffusion of Zazen principles’ It is a brief text written in Chinese by Dōgen around 1228 after his return to Kyoto from China, in the Koraku Period. Dōgen himself wrote upon the topic of teaching Zazen: “I write these words in substitution of what is communicated from the direct transmission I shin den shin, from heart to heart”.
Fuse: The offering made in a monastery or dojo.
Fusuma: divisori The sliding doors in a traditional Japanese house.
Gaki: Spirits found in Japanese mythology, famous for their insatiability.
Gassho: Mudra of the ‘palms of the hands united together’ A respectful or devotional gesture that symbolizes the unity of being.
Gautama: Name of the historic Shakyamuni Buddha also called Siddhartha.
Genkan: Portico where shoes are removed and left in a traditional Japanese house.
Ghen: The eye that reflects all things.
Gi: A collection of writings, anthology, text.
Goin: v. karma.
Guanshiyin: v. Kwan Yin,Kannon, Kanzeon.
Haikai: Ancient name for the Japanese form of poetry, known today as Haiku.
Haiku: A Japanese brief poetic composition consisting of 17 syllables between three lines in this order: 5, 7, 5.
Han: A wooden table that often has an incised writing, hung at the Zendo entrance and is often hit to indicate the beginning of a Zazen session.
Hannya: Japanese term v. prajna.
Hara: Japanese term for the lower part of the abdomen where the center of gravity is found in the human body. In Zazen it becomes the awareness center.
Hasshodo: The eightfold path.
Hensan: Pilgrimage to visit the teachers.
Hinayana: From the Sanskrit term meaning ‘little vehicle’, indicating the ancient Indian Buddhism, its oldest form, it is generally considered as the opposite of Mahayana, ‘bid vehicle’ It is strictly loyal to the original monastic order that is considered the depository of orthodox Buddhism. Hinayana followers strive for liberation through contemplative meditation; its goal is to achieve perfect individual liberation as soon as possible, reaching the conditions of the perfect saint, Arhat. It is mostly diffused in southern Asia: Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. The Theravada is the most diffused form of this type of Buddhism.
Hishiryo: That which cannot be thought, the conscience that does not grasp thought or non-thought, to think without thinking. In Zen, it indicates the Satori condition, illumination, that which can be experienced but not understood rationally.
Ho: Japanese term for the Dharma.
Hokai: Ocean of the Dharma.
Hokke shu: Buddhist school for the Lotus Sutra.
Hosshin: v. dharmakaya.
In: Unity.
In kin: A small bell made with smooth bronze attached to a varnished wooden handle, struck with a metal stick, used to announce the beginning and end of a meditative phase in Zen monasteries.
Jaku: Fulfillment.
Joriki: Mental strength.
Joshin: True sincerity.
Ju, Juko: Japanese term meaning ‘elegy’ indicating a sentence in poetic form used by Zen teachers in addition to the explanation of a koan to aid comprehension.
Judo: A martial art whose name means to win strength using flexibility, and power with gentleness. Literally: do ‘way’ ju ‘of softness’.
Jugyu-zu: Japanese term indicating a very popular depiction in Zen iconography. It consists of ten, sometimes eight or five, images of an ox or an Indian buffalo that represent the various steps or levels that a Zen follower must pass to reach the conditions for Illumination.
Jujukai: Japanese term that indicates the fundamental precepts that a Mahayana Buddhist follower must follow to advance the awakening and illumination process.
Jukai: The ceremony where one receives the precepts, the vows. The person who receives them becomes officially Buddhist and is given a Dharma name.
Kai: Japanese term that designates the precepts, the Buddhist teachings and indicates one’s behavior. It can be considered literally, like ethical indications or broadly, like aspects or qualities of reality.
Kaizan: Japanese term for a founder of a temple or sect.
Kami: Shintoist spirits that live in the world of Nature.
Kannon: or Kanzeon, Japanese name for the Compassionate Bodhisattva.
Kanzeon: v. Kannon.
Karma: Sanskrit term, ‘yen-yin’ in Chinese, ‘go-in’ in Japanese, literally ‘action’ Causality laws for which every effect has a cause. In the human sphere, our actions determine the quality of our lives and influence the lives of others. In the context of reincarnation, every action within all past lives will have consequences in future lives and therefore, every action in the present life will make an impact on the present, past and future lives.
Kei: Purity.
Kendo: The way of the sword, Japanese fencing, a art closely related to Zen practice.
Kensho: Literally: ‘to see one’s own nature’ Japanese term used in Zen as a synonym of Satori, Illumination. Referring to an illumination experience, but not the total one.
Kesa: The outer clothing worn by a monk. In Japan, the kesa is above the left shoulder and below the right: this clothing indicates that the monk is a follower of Shakamuni Buddha.
Kin hin: Five or ten minute walking meditation between two Zazen sittings.
Koan: An affirmation, a question, an anecdote or a dialogue that cannot be logically understood or resolved, used in Rinzai Zen to aid the path to Illumination. ‘Zen Question’ without the rational blocking that creates mental and psychic tension in the mind of who attempts to solve it.
Kohdo: The way of the incense o the art of the incense ceremony.
Koicha: Powdered green tea used during the tea ceremony.
Kontin: State of slowness, sleepiness, during Zazen.
Ku: Japanese term for emptiness, ‘shunyata’ in Sanskrit.
Kusen: Oral teachings from teacher to followers held in the Zendo during Zazen.
Kwan Yin: or Guanshiyin, Chinese name for the Compassionate Bodhisattva.
Kwoon: Chinese term v. dojo.
Kyudo: The art of archery.
Lin-chi: v. Rinzai.
Mahayana: One of the three biggest branches of Indian Buddhism, meaning ‘Great Vehicle’ opposite to Hinayana, ‘the little vehicle’ Followers of the Mahayana do not attempt to achieve their own immediate liberation and take on the long and difficult way of the Bodhisattva, along with the liberation of all other living beings. One is motivated to continue this unselfish path through infinite compassion. The Mahayana arose between the first and second century A.D. and diffused throughout Central Asia, in China, Korea and Japan. The Zen school is a part of this branch of Buddhism.
Maitreya: the Buddha of the future, the last Buddha to appear on earth by converting all the men and the devils themselves, united in the attainment of nirvana. Is shown with the feet flat on the floor, always ready to manifest on earth when the time of his coming. Often presents a hairstyle shaped stupa in one hand and a bottle of amrita, ambrosia, a symbol of his life in heaven and in the other a lotus flower, a symbol of self-creation.
Manjushri: Sanskrit term, Monju in Japanese, the Bodhisattva of Wisdom. He aims against ignorance, this why he is often depicted on the back of a lion while brandishing a sword that cuts through the veils of illusion with a sacred text between two lotus flowers placed above his head. Manjushri is also represented in the furious and frantic form of Yamantaka, the god with a bullhead whose task is to kill the master of death. Revered especially in the Zen school it is the principle figure placed upon the altar in the Zendo.
Mantra: Sanskrit term that originally indicated a hymn refering to the Vedas, sacred Hindu texts, recited by priests for particular occasions. Later, used to designate the part of a text that a guru or teacher entrusted to a disciple at the end of meditation, then indicated advise offered to a Brahman, a Hindu priest, to those who requested it, and finally, the current meaning, the mantra indicates a magic formula, a syllable or a sequence of formulas to be continuously repeated after achieving Illumination.
Miso: Fermented soy paste used in Japanese cuisine and in meals during a Sesshin.
Mokugyo: A wooden drum originally shaped as a fish, today is it spherical, found in the Zendo and play in accompany to sutra recitation. Comes with a wooden stick and cloth cover and sits on small pillow.
Mondo: mon: question, do: answer; form of dialogue used mainly between teacher and follower.
Monju: v. Manjushri.
Mu: Japanese term expressed with ‘muji’ The character ‘mu’ is a negative prefix that Zen uses to directly indicate reality without semantic content. It designates the concept of nothingness, emptiness. The mu is often used as the first koan that a disciple receives from his/her teacher. Mu is often used as a synonym for emptiness.
Mudra: Hand and finger position with relevant symbolic meaning.
Mumonkan: ‘The door without a door’, a collection of forty-eight koans composed by Mumon Enkai, 1183-1260.
Naraka: Hell.
Nehan: v. nirvana.
Nirmanakaya: The third of the three aspects or bodies of the Buddha nature, it is the nature in human form that works for the benefit of all sentient beings.
Nirvana: Sanskrit term, ‘Nehan’ in Japanese, the non-dualistic state beyond life and death. The original meaning: ‘extinguish o turn-off due to absence of a combustible’, it implies the total exhaustion of ignorance and vanity: in this condition the spirit contemplates the emptiness of being. It also indicates the state of profound illumination reached by the Shakyamuni Buddha.
Niwa-zume: Japanese term meaning to be left in the hall and indicates the period in which an aspiring Zen student who intends to join a monastery, he must wait outside. After a first refusal, if he is not adverse to waiting a few more days, he will be welcomed into the monastic community.
No: Form of Japanese theater developing around the XV century A.D. and reflects the Zen ideals and was very popular during the Ashikaga period.
Nyo-rai: v. Tathagata.
Oryoki: Bowl used by monks for eating and to collect offerings. It also indicates a formal meal during Sesshin. Literally: ‘that which contains enough’.
Paramita: Generic Sanskrit name indicating the twelve Buddhist perfections or virtues. They are natural expressions of the illuminated mind, the meditative mind. Literally: to go to the other shore.
Patriarch: ‘Tsu-shih’ in Chinese, founder of a sect or a Buddhist school or official successor of a sect or school. Strictly speaking, the title referes to the first thirty-four successors of the Shakyamuni Buddha, passing to the sixth patriarch Hui-neng, ‘Eno’ in Japanese, 639-713.
Prajna: Sanskrit term, ‘hannya’ in Japanese, illuminated wisdom, wisdom that transcends the subject-object dualism.
Prajna paramita: Supreme wisdom.
Rakusu: A piece of cloth that ordained Bodhisattvas and monks wear around their necks to symbolize the torn and patched clothing of the Buddha.
Rinzai: Chinese Zen school founded by Teacher Lin-chi, ‘Rinzai’ in Japanese, who lived from 854 in the same named monastery in Hopei in northern China and died in 867. His doctrine was introduced in Japan by Teacher Eisai at the beginning of the XIII century. The Rinzai Zen school belongs to the currnet Mahayana Buddhism and follows the ‘kanna-zen’, the Zen of meditation upon words, based on studying the koans to achieve immediate Illumination.
Ro: The number of years of training done in a monastery.
Rohatsu: Sacred day for Zen followers in which the Buddha Gautama’s Illumination under the Bodhi tree is commemorated, it is observed on December 8 on the Western calendar.
Roji: or ‘the rocky path’, it is a series of steps taken from the tearoom or house at the other side of the garden.
Roshi: Japanese term indicating a Zen teacher belonging to a line of transmission that is considered to be illuminated. Literally: ‘elderly teacher’.
Rupakaya: Bodily existence.
Samadhi: Sanskrit term meaning ‘union’, in Japanese Zen ‘zammai’, indicating yoga meditation, the condition of the conscience verifying an absolute coincidence between thought and object, hence the mystic union of the subject with the Absolute. This concept intends a spiritual condition in which the heart is concentrated exclusively on a point of grace on which it achieves perfect calmness.
Sambhogakaya: The second of the three aspects or bodies of the Buddha nature, indicates the manifestations of the powers born from the Buddha’s perfect Illumination.
Sambo: Japanese term indicating the three jewels, the three preciosities: the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha.
Samu: Japanese terms designating daily manual work done in Zen monasteries, Zazen-work. Considered as a meditative activity it is a part of the follower’s duty in training. Samu within a monastery was regulated by Chinese Pai-Chang in the IX century A.D.
Sandokai: Literally: ‘relative and absolute identity’ it is a sutra, considered to be amongst the most important Zen poetic components, recited daily in the Sōtō Zen ceremonies.
Sangha: Literally. ‘sam-gha’ ‘that which runs together’, to go together in the same direction. The term originally refers to Buddhist monks, later refers also to lay followers that designate a united community that practices Zazen. One of the three jewels or three refuges. In Zen it also indicates the harmonious interrelation of all beings, the phenomena of events, in other words inseparable and harmonious expression of the Buddhadharma.
Sanpai: san: three, pai: bows. Three prostrations with the forehead touching the ground and palms of the hands raised.
Sanran: State of mental and emotional agitation in which the spirit is uncontrollable and is lost during Zazen.
Sanzen: Term used in the Rinzai Zen school indicating a private conversation with the Roshi, v. dokusan.
Satori: Zen term designating the experience of Illumination; the awakening of the cosmic truth, Human awakening to one’s own nature.
Sei: Non-effort, respect.
Seisei: Japanese term used to describe of absolute sincere behavior that every follower should have in their daily activity. It is also the behavior through sincerity and honesty toward everything we encounter in our lives. Sometimes it is used as an opposite to the term Zenna.
Sensei: Japanese term to indicate the teacher responsible for a dojo, also in the martial arts, ‘Sifu’ in Chinese.
Sesshin: Literally: ‘collect and regulate the mind’ Intensive Zazen retreats of three, five or seven days, collective living based mainly on the concentration of silence.
Shakyamuni: Literally: ‘The wisdom of the Shakya clan’ Title attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, the historic Buddha after Illumination.
Shiho: Transmission of the Dharma from teacher to teacher.
Shikantaza: Literally: Shikan: ‘only’; taza ‘to sit’, meditation without object, practiced in the Sōtō Zen school. Zazen without substantial elements such as counting breaths or studying the koans, it is characterized by a strong understanding without speech. Simply to be seated in a position and correct concentration, with out thinking of anything, to not be worried, without searching for something, not even the Satori.
Shin: Heart, essence, mind, totality of being.
Shingon: Esoteric Buddhist school that uses the Mantras, introduced to Japan by Kukai in 808.
Shino: Japanese ceramic style conveying Zen influences.
Shinto: Religious system with Japanese origins, formed before the introduction of Buddhism, based on a natural polytheism, characterized by the veneration of numerous divinities, kami, that preside in every natural phenomenal form, and from the veneration of historic characters, in particular, ending with the Japanese emperor Hirohito denial of all divine pretenses in 1946.
Sho: Achieving a Satori.
Shobo: Absolute reality, true reality, true Dharma.
Shobogenzo: Literally: ‘Eye and treasure of the eye of the true Dharma’ Composed by Dōgen Zenji, includes ninety-five texts about the Zen doctrine.
Shodo: The art of calligraphy, the practice of writing, fundamental form of religious communication for Zen followers.
Shoji: Equivalent to the Sanskrit ‘samsara’ the realm of birth and death, the infinite chain of existence: birth, death, and rebirth in another condition. Literally: birth (or life) and death. Shoji is the title of a chapter of the Shobogenzo by Dōgen Zenji.
Shojo: Purification from illusions.
Shu: Term meaning practice, sect, school.
Shunya: Sanskrit term designating emptiness, the lack of essence in everything.
Shunyata: Emptiness, Sanskrit term, ‘Ku’ in Japanese, indicates a fundamental Mahayana Buddhist and Zen concept: emptiness.
Sifu: Chinese term v. sensei.
Sōtō: Japanese Zen school, apart of the Mahayana Buddhism, founded by Dōgen Kigen Zenji that follows the ‘mokusho-Zen’ the Zen of silent and gradual illumination through Zazen.
Stupa: Sacred Buddhist building, built for the conservation of the Buddha and his followers’ relics.
Sutra: In Buddhism, scripts or chapters of sacred texts or sometimes the text itself. The name sutra particularly insinuates doctrinal subjects of the Buddha, collected in the Buddhist cannon.
T kin: Bell made of hammered black bronze, placed upon a pillow, hit with a wooden stick, covered with a cloth in order to make a deep sound.
T’ien-t’ai: or Tendai Buddhist school.
Tabi: or pedule, a kind of white sock with hole for the big toe separate from the other toes, worn by teachers during ceremonies.
Tai: The body.
Tatami: A mat woven with rice stalks and aged for at least one year, used as a floor covering in traditional Japanese houses.
Tathagata: A lecture on the Dharma, formal comments given by a Zen teacher on a koan or text.
Tenzo: The head cook responsible for preparing and cooking all food in a monastery. It is a very important role especially for an Abbot.
Tripitaka: Sanskrit term meaning ‘the three hoops’ and indicates the three big sections in which the Buddhist cannon is divided. The first is about monastic discipline, the second comprises of ‘the Buddha’s lectures’, the third is the oldest compendium of Buddhist psychology and ethics.
Wa: Harmony.
Wu: Chinese term indicating the Satori.
Yana: Sanskrit term meaning ‘vehicle’ and indicates the various path a devoted Buddhist may take to reach spiritual liberation.
Yen-yin: v. karma.
Yin-Yang: In Taoist philosophy, to opposite energies. The interaction between the yin and the yang originates the universe. The yin indicates the feminine, passive, receptive, dark and weak; the yang, the principle of masculinity, active, creative, luminous and hard.
Yu: Calmness.
Zafu: Round, hard pillows filled with natural fibers, traditionally kapok, upon which one is seat during Zazen practice.
Zafuton: Rectangular or square mat for meditation upon which the zafu pillow is placed, used for meditation.
Zagu: A square piece of cloth upon which a monk sits or bows during practice, its original purpose was to keep the kesa from falling on the floor.
Zammai: Japanese term that corresponds to the Sanskrit Samadhi.
ZaZen: To sit in meditation.
Zazenkai: Day of intense Zazen practice.
Zen: Japanese term meaning meditation, like ‘Chan’ in Chinese, and ‘Dhyana’ in Sanskrit. The Mahayana Buddhist school tradition divides Zen into these main sects: Sōtō, Rinzai, and Obaku.
Zendo: ‘Zen’ meditation, ‘do’ way. The Zendo is a place for Zazen practice, the meditation room.
Zenga: Painting.
Zenji: Literally: ‘Zen teacher’ Term honoring the attributes of a high-ranking teacher or one of great achievement.
Zenna: Contaminated: Japanese term denoting the actions, good and bad, the impede one from reaching illumination. This concept is often used as the opposite of ‘seisei’.
Zenrin: Japanese term meaning ‘the Zen forest’ and designates a Zen monastery.
Zo: Literally a warehouse where precious family items are kept.
Zori: Japanese thong sandals made of rice straw with a flexible sole usually made of velvet.
ZoZen: Literally: ‘various impurities’ The contamination of illusion that derives from good, bad and neutral actions.